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Article Index


Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

Foetal alcohol syndrome is a spectrum of disorders which vary in severity from case to case caused by drinking during pregnancy. There is no known cure because the damage it causes to the central nervous system creates a permanent disability.

Fragile X Syndrome

Fragile X is an inherited mental impairment, the result of a change in a gene on the X chromosome. The syndrome causes learning difficulties in children, varying from mild to severe. It is more common in boys than girls.

Glue Ear

Glue Ear (Otitis Media with effusion) is a common childhood condition where the middle ear fills with a glue-like fluid instead of air and can occur in one or both ears leading to hearing loss.


Haemophilia is a genetic condition which is inherited and affects the blood’s ability to clot properly.   

Hearing Impairment

Hearing loss can vary from small loss requiring a hearing aid to the other extreme of being profoundly deaf. When hearing aids are worn all noises are amplified, not just voices but background noise as well.

Heart Disorders

A congenital heart defect occurs when a child is born with a heart problem. Up to 9 in 1000 babies are born in the UK with congenital heart disease. Common congenital heart defects are Septal defects, Pulmonary Valve Stenosis and Coarctation.


Hydrocephalus is a condition in which there is an accumulation of fluid (cerebrospinal fluid – known as CSF) in the brain. CSF normally flows through the cavities or ventricles in the brain, however, when its normal flow or absorption is blocked an over accumulation of CSF will result giving rise to raised pressure inside the brain.

Joint Hypermobility

Children with Joint Hypermobility will have an unusually large range of movement in some/all of their joints. Most experience few problems and do not require treatment unless pain or joint instability occurs.

If Joint Hypermobility causes symptoms such as joint pain, a child may have Joint Hypermobility Syndrome and is likely to require treatment. Children with Joint Hypermobility Syndrome can have fragile joints, muscles, tendons and ligaments.

Juvenile Arthritis

Children with Juvenile Arthritis experience inflammation of the joints causing swelling, stiffness, heat and pain. It can damage joints, bones muscles and cartilage which can hamper physical movement.

Left Handed (Sponsored by Robinswood Press)   

Loss, Separation and Bereavement

Some children who have to deal with loss, separation or bereavement will develop an emotional disorder which affects their behaviour and their ability to learn.

Meares-Irlen Syndrome

Meares–Irlen Syndrome is a form of visual stress and visual perception distortion which can make fine vision tasks such as reading difficult and uncomfortable.

Mental Health

Mental Health is a person’s condition with regard to their psychological and emotional well-being (Oxford Dictionaries). 1 in 10 children between the ages of 1 and 15 has a mental health disorder and around 20% of children and teenagers will experience a mental health problem at some point according to the British Medical Association.

Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular Dystrophy is a genetic disorder that causes the muscles that help the body to move to weaken. It is progressive, affecting one set of muscles before moving on to another set.

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)

Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) is a long term chronic disabling illness of the immune and central nervous system which leads to muscle and joint pain and intense physical or mental exhaustion.